**Roll**

A roll is a rotation about the longitudinal axis of MA. To keep the momentum, for a horizontal roll the longitudinal axis must maintain its angle to a horizontal plane. Start and end of rolls should be crisp and well defined.

**Tictoc**

The Model Helicopter hovers or moves slowly and is rotated using cyclic pitch about 135°. It then rotates its RD in a 90° arc back and forth. A movement of the centre of gravity of less than 2 m for simple tic-tocs or less than 5 m for tic-tocs with pirouettes.

**Rainbow**

A rainbow is a semicircle, starting from hovering, with RD always normal to the flight path. The diameter of the semicircle should not be less than 10 m. The start and stop shall be crisp and well defined.

**Snake**

While in fast flight the Model Helicopter follows a wavy line by alternately performing upright and inverted quarter circular segments of equal diameter and length. During these circular segments the banking must not fall below 45°. A banking of less than 20° means just an array of quarter circles but not a snake and makes the maneuver unrecognizable.

**Funnel**

A funnel is a circle with at least 10 m diameter, performed with a declination of RD of at least 45° from a horizontal plane. The Model Helicopter speed, declination and circle diameter should be constant. A declination of less than 20° means just a horizontal circle but not a funnel and makes the manoeuvre unrecognizable.

**Reversal**

Cyclic or pirouette reversals must be performed in a way, that the number of rotations in each direction is almost equal. If not defined otherwise, the direction of rotation should alter after every 360° rotation.

# K-Faktor 5.0

## figuren

**Nr. 1 – 4-point roll backwards**

MA enters in upright backward flight and then performs 4 quarter rolls, separated each by a recognizable straight segment of the same duration. The tail of the MA always points in the flight direction.

**Nr. 2 – Double Snake**

MA enters in upright backward flight and then describes a sinuous line by alternately performing upright and inverted circle segments of equal diameter and length. With the last arc the flight direction is inverted and the MA continues with another sinuous line by alternately performing upright and inverted circle segments. There should be at least four complete circle segments in each direction with a diameter of minimum 10m.

# K-Faktor 6.0

## figuren

**Nr. 3 – Waltz**

MA enters in inverted forward flight and performs a quarter pirouette (tail turns to circle center) to enter a funnel. After a quarter funnel MA performs a complete smaller funnel (max. quarter diameter of the first) and then continues with another quarter of the larger funnel, followed again by a complete smaller funnel etc. In this way the MA finishes a complete large funnel with 4 smaller funnels. After the fourth small funnel in front of the pilot is completed, the MA performs another quarter pirouette to the exit in inverted forward flight. The diameter of the large funnel should be at least 20 meters.

**Nr. 4 – Pirouetting flip**

MA hovers and then starts pirouetting. At the same time or after one pirouette the MA starts to flip three times while it continues to perform pirouettes. There should be at least 1 pirouette, maximum 3 pirouettes during each 360° flip. Both rotations should have a constant rate and the MA maintains its position during the manoeuver.

**Nr. 5 – Backward rolling circle**

MA enters in backward flight and performs a horizontal circle while it performs consecutive axial rolls. MA speed, rolling rate and the radius of the circle should be constant and the tail of the MA always points in the flight direction.

# K-Faktor 7.0

## figuren

**Nr. 6 – 4-point TicToc reversal**

MA hovers with the tail to the judges line and is brought to vertical position (Nose up) about 135°. It then starts rotating alternately about the lateral axis for about 45° in each direction. Both 45°-positions have to be reached one time (i.e. one tictoc) and then the MA performs a quarter pirouette in clockwise direction. It performs another complete tictoc in this position, then again performs another quarter pirouette in clockwise direction and so on. After the MA has performed a complete pirouette, the MA starts immediately a second 4-time tictoc in anti-clockwise direction. The MA maintains its position during the maneuver.

**Nr. 7 – Tides**

MA hovers sideways to the judges line and starts performing 4 rainbows. During the first half of each rainbow (ascent), the model performs a half axial roll. At the peak position of the rainbow the MA reverses the roll direction and performs a half axial roll (opposite direction) during each second half (descent) of the rainbow. The longitudinal axis in stop positions of the rainbows should be minimum angle of 30° up and in a distance of 10m.

**Nr. 8 – Rolling Loop**

MA performs a full vertical loop while it performs axial rolls (minimum 6). The roles begin and end in bottom of the loop.

**Nr. 9 – Pirouetting funnel**

MA enters in inverted flight and then starts pirouetting during it perform three super-imposed circles in lateral inverted flight with the rotor disk tilt at least 45 degree from a horizontal plane. The diameter of the circles should be at least 10 meters and there should be at least three pirouettes during each circle.

# K-Faktor 8.0

## figuren

**Nr. 10 – Pirouetting Peak (reverse)**

MA enters in upright forward flight and over the center line it performs a 45° pushed flip and enters a 45° ascent of at least 10 meters length. After a pushed 90° flip it climbs for another 10 meters under 45° back to the center line where it performs another quarter pushed flip. It descends under 45° to another quarter pushed flip and a final descend back to the center line. Without delay the MA starts a second Peak the flight path back with pulled 90° flips. The MA evenly distribute a complete 360° pirouette during each 45° ascends/descends and the longitudinal axis of the MA should be almost perpendicular to the flight path.

**Nr. 11 – Fortress**

MA hovers sideways the judges line and enters the manoeuver with a pulled or pushed rainbow. This first rainbow includes 2 evenly distributed pirouettes. The MA then hovers and performs the second, sideways rainbow to the back with a full elevator flip at the peak position. The third pushed/ pulled rainbow includes again 2 evenly distributed pirouettes. The fourth rainbow to the starting position is a sideways rainbow with a full elevator flip at the peak position. The four hovering positions between the rainbows are situated on the corner of a square of at least 15 meters. Pirouette and flip direction is not specified

**Nr. 12 – Quattro stagioni**

MA enters in forward flight and begins at the center line the first quarter of a horizontal circle with minimum 20m diameter with consecutive axial rolls. After the first quarter of the circle, the MA performs without hesitation a 90° pirouette (tail turns to circle center) and fly the second quarter with sideway rolls. After this second quarter of the circle, the tail turns again about 90° until the tail points in flight direction and the MA starts a backwards rolling circle. After the third quarter of the circle the MA performs again a 90° pirouette (nose turns to circle center) and continues the circle with sideway rolls. After the circle is completed, the tails turns 90° and exits the maneuver in horizontal forward flight. The MA performs minimum 2 rolls, but always the same number of rolls in each quarter.

# K-Faktor 9.0

## figuren

**Nr. 13 – Rolling Sunglasses**

MA enters in upright forward flight, begins at the center line with consecutive axial rolls and performs a 5/8 inside loop, followed by a 45°-descent. MA continues with a 3⁄4 inside loop and a second 45°descent and finishes the first partial loop in upright forward flight. At this point the MA stops the axial rolls

**Nr. 14 – Double Pirofunnel (reversal)**

MA performs two super-imposed funnels. The MA starts the maneuver with a quarter pirouette (tail turns to circle center) to enter the funnel at the center line. It continues without hesitation with one complete pirouette until after a quarter funnel the tail points again to circle center. It continues the funnel with one pirouette in opposite direction until half of the funnel is completed, then changes the direction of the pirouette again for the third quarter of the funnel and again for the fourth quarter of the first funnel. The MA continues in the same way at the second funnel. After the second funnel is completed the last pirouette is followed without hesitation by another quarter pirouette to the exit in inverted forward flight. The diameter of the funnel should be at least 20 meters.

**Nr. 15 – Pirouetting Globe (reversal)**

MA enters in upright flight and then performs four pirouetting loops. During each loop, the flight path is changed continually in a way that the next loop is rotated about 45 ° (seen from above) until a complete globe has been described. The MA exits the maneuver at the same altitude but in opposite direction to the beginning. During each loop, the MA must perform at least two pirouettes and in the bottom of each loop the pirouetting direction change to the opposite. The MA starts and stops pirouetting at the center line.

**Nr. 16 – Sidewinder**

MA enters in sideways flight and performs a circle (minimum diameter of 15m) with 12 pirouetting tictoc ́s. The axis of the pirouetting tictoc ́s point towards the center of the horizontal circle and the rotor disk is outside. The MA starts and stops pirouetting at the center line.

# K-Faktor 10.0

## figuren

**Nr. 17 – Rolling Pirouetting Peak**

The helicopter enters in upright forward flight. At the center line it performs a 45° pulled flip and enters to a 45° ascent of at least 10 meters length.It performs evenly a 180° axial roll.After a pushed 90° flip it climbs for another 10 meters at 45° back to the center line. A 180° axial roll is flown. At the upper point at center , it performs a 90° pulled flip. It descend under 45° with a 180° axial roll to a 90° pushed flip and a final 45° descend back to the center line, also with a 180° axial roll. The last flip of this maneuver is a 45° pulled flip. The helicopter performs during the 90° flips a 360° pirouette. The distance between the flips and the axial rolls should be at least one length of the helicopter.

**Nr. 18 – Cross-eyed glasses**

The helicopter enters in upright forward flight, begins at the center line with consecutive axial rolls and performs a 5/8 inside loop, followed by a 45° descent. The roll direction is reversed at the centerline. The helicopter continues with a 3/4 inside loop and a second 45° descent, reverses the roll direction at the centerline again and finishes the first partial loop in upright forward flight. At this point the helicopter stops the axial rolls.

**Nr. 19 – Twin Peaks**

MA enters in upright forward flight and before the center line it performs a 45° pushed flip and enters a 45° ascent of at least 20 meters length. After a pulled 90° flip it descends under 45° for the half distance of the first straight, then performs another quarter pulled flip and again it descends under 45° to the entry level and another quarter pulled flip. Then it performs another 45° ascent of the same distance of the first, a quarter pushed flip to a 45° descend, another quarter pushed flip to a 45° descend . With a 90° pushed flip the MA starts repeating the whole maneuver with the first 45° ascent. After the last 45° descend the MA exits with a 45° pushed flip in upright flight. The intersection of the four ascents is on the center line. During the 45° ascents/ descends the longitudinal axis of the MA should be almost perpendicular to the flight path. In each ascent/descend the MA perform one 360° pirouette from corner to corner. In each corner the pirouette direction for the next pirouette changes. In this maneuver are totally 12 pirouettes.

**Nr. 20 – Pirorainbow X reversal**

MA hovers over the center line with an angle of 45°and then enters the maneuver with a rainbow. During the rainbow the MA performs one 360° pirouette in each direction, with the reverse on the top of the rainbow. Then another rainbow (with pirouette reversal) leads back to the starting point. MA then continues with these rainbows alternately about the longitudinal and the lateral axis, until the four outer points of an X (viewed from above) are reached and MA hovers where it started the manoeuver. MA does not perform any part of pirouettes, when hovering in the center.

**Nr. 21 – The Ball**

MA hovers upright with nose to the left. The maneuver starts with a half roll, followed immediately from a half pirouette. When the nose of the models shows to the right, it makes a half roll to the opposite direction of the first half roll, followed from a half pirouette also to the opposite direction of the first pirouette. This basic maneuver looks like the model rolls and pirouettes continuously in one direction without hesitations and defined end positions. For “The Ball” this basic maneuver will be repeated 4 to 6 times, while the maneuver is rotated continuously about the vertical axis about 360°. The MA maintains its position during the maneuver.

**Nr. 22 – Palm**

The model hover at 15 m height in the middle of a fictive, vertical square (edge length ~ 20m) With two complete pirouetting flips the model flies from the middle at a straight line to the upper left corner. After reaching this corner, the models flies back to the middle with 2 reversed pirouetting flips. In this manner the MA flies to each corner of the square (clockwise) and reversed back to the middle. At every end position, the model hovers in the same direction of the start position and stops for ~ 1/2sec.